In this review, Jackson and Associates Ltd provided a team of two consultants to work with a manager of CIDA’s Evaluation Directorate to write a synthesis of nearly 20 assessments of Program-Based Approaches (PBAs), including six Country Program Evaluations, and another twelve from other bilateral and multilateral development agencies.


The review found that PBAs were at their most effective in strengthening public-sector financial management within developing countries. PBAs were found to be less effective in meeting their stated primary objective of reducing poverty, and showed marked weaknesses in sustainability, mutual accountability and the inclusion of civil society.